Synthesized in the 50s of the last century, they have been used for a long time, and their effects is studied better compared with the drugs of other groups. Their structure is based on a triple carbon ring; hence is the name "tricyclic". This group of drugs includes Imipramine, Amitriptyline and Nortriptyline.
Tricyclic antidepressants increase the concentration of serotonin and noripinephrine in our brain due to a decrease in their absorption by neurons. The effects of drugs in this group are different; for example, amitriptyline has a calming effect, and imipramine, on the contrary, is stimulating. TCAs act faster than drugs belonging to other groups; in some cases, positive mood changes can be observed a few days after the start of taking.
Since the drugs of this group block other mediators (each in varying degrees), they cause a number of undesirable side effects. The most common are lethargy, drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation. There is also increased sweating, dizziness, increased heart rate, decreased potency, weakness, nausea, difficult urinating. There may be a feeling of anxiety. The overdose of TCAs can lead to severe consequences including death.